miércoles, 4 de abril de 2012

Leyes que rigen la psicología escolar

Ley para crear el puesto de Psicólogo Escolar


Ley para Reglamentar el Ejercicio de la Profesión de la Psicología en Puerto Rico



Teorías de la Personalidad

Roles del Psicólogo Escolar

Funciones del Psicólog@ Escolar

* Promover un ambiente positivo de aprendizaje.

* Estar preparado para intervenir a nivel individual y del sistema.

* Crear programas preventivos para una  educación efectiva.

* Tener buen conocimiento sobre  el desarrollo de los niños, salud mental, comportamiento, motivación y tipos de enseñanza.

* Ayudar a niños y a jóvenes a desarrollarse en el ámbito académico, social y emocional.

* Trabajar en colaboración con maestros, padres y otros profesionales.

martes, 3 de abril de 2012


In-Depth Look at Homework Distractions
ScienceDaily (Apr. 3, 2012) — A new regional study by a senior learning researcher and Mississippi State faculty member is the first to link homework distraction to a wide range of variables.
The multi-level analysis by Jianzhong Xu, a professor in the university's College of Education, examined a range of variables affecting homework distraction, at both the student level and the class level. He hypothesized that homework distraction is affected by such variables as gender, academic achievement and student attitudes toward the work.
A member of the college's leadership and foundations department, Xu also included numerous types of distractions in his analysis.
"The distractions I considered ranged from the conventional, such as watching television or daydreaming, to the high-tech, such as text messaging and playing video games," he said.
Xu surveyed 1,800 eighth- and 11th-grade students from nearly 100 classes across the Southeastern United States. Students were asked about the frequency of family help with homework, extracurricular activities and parents' education levels, among other variables.
Xu, a Columbia University doctoral graduate, said the study found those less likely to be distracted while doing homework scored higher in affective attitude, academic achievement, learning-oriented reasons, homework interest, and adult-oriented reasons.
Most of the variance in homework distraction occurred at the student level, not at the class level, he added.
While it may be a common assumption that many students tend to think of homework as boring, Xu's investigation indicated affective attitude toward homework, like the favorability of homework as compared with other after-school activities, affect homework distraction the most.
The study also yielded two surprising results:
  1. Girls were more likely to be distracted than boys
  2. 11th graders were more likely to be distracted than younger students while doing homework.
Xu said the study's results have both research and practical implications.
"This line of research needs to be continued," Xu said. "Other school levels, how different genders handle distractions and how certain attitudes toward homework play a role in coping with distraction need to be examined."
Even though the findings show family homework help is not directly related to homework distraction, parents may still play an important role in helping children cope with distraction through influencing their attitudes toward homework. And students can take responsibility toward decreasing distraction while doing their homework by arranging a conducive homework environment and prioritizing and structuring other activities.

Mississippi State University (2012, April 3). In-depth look at homework distractions.

Autism More Common Than Previously Thought: CDC Report Shows One in 54 Boys Identified
ScienceDaily (Mar. 29, 2012) — The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 88 children in the United States has been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a new study released March 29 that looked at data from 14 communities. Autism spectrum disorders are almost five times more common among boys than girls -- with 1 in 54 boys identified.
The number of children identified with ASDs ranged from 1 in 210 children in Alabama to 1 in 47 children in Utah. The largest increases were among Hispanic and black children.
The report, Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders -- Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008, provides autism prevalence estimates from 14 areas. It was just published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
"This information paints a picture of the magnitude of the condition across our country and helps us understand how communities identify children with autism," said Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Kathleen Sebelius. "That is why HHS and our entire administration has been working hard to improve the lives of people living with autism spectrum disorders and their families by improving research, support, and services."
"One thing the data tells us with certainty -- there are more children and families that need help," said CDC Director Thomas Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. "We must continue to track autism spectrum disorders because this is the information communities need to guide improvements in services to help children."
Zachary Warren, Ph.D., director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Vanderbilt University, says effective early identification and treatment of autism is a public health emergency.
"The new CDC data is the best evidence we have to date that autism is a very common disorder. While recent estimates have varied, we have always known the individual, familial, educational and societal costs that go along with autism are tremendous," Warren said. "We are now seeing autism in more than 1 percent of the population, which highlights how challenging it will be for systems of care to meet service needs."
The results of CDC's study highlight the importance of the Obama administration's efforts to address the needs of people with ASDs, including the work of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The IACC's charge is to facilitate ASD research, screening, intervention, and education. As part of this effort, the National Institutes of Health has invested in research to identify possible risk factors and effective therapies for people with ASDs.
Study results from the 2008 surveillance year show 11.3 per 1,000 8-year-old children have been identified as having an ASD. This marks a 23 percent increase since the last report in 2009. Some of this increase is due to the way children are identified, diagnosed and served in their communities, although exactly how much is due to these factors is unknown. "To understand more, we need to keep accelerating our research into risk factors and causes of autism spectrum disorders," said Coleen Boyle, Ph.D., M.S.Hyg., director of CDC's National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.
The study also shows more children are being diagnosed by age 3, an increase from 12 percent for children born in 1994 to 18 percent for children born in 2000. "Unfortunately, 40 percent of the children in this study aren't getting a diagnosis until after age 4. We are working hard to change that," said Boyle.

Reference: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders -- Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008 March 30, 2012 / Vol. 61 / No. SS-3

Parents of Children With Autism More Likely to Get Common Ailments
ScienceDaily (Apr. 2, 2012) — Parents of children with autism are more likely to get common ailments such as colds, coughs and headaches as a direct result of the increased stresses linked to their caring duties, according to research from Northumbria University.
The research is published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, this April which is also National Autism month.
In the first study to look at the physical and psychological well-being of these carers, psychologists Dr Mark Wetherell, Dr Mark Moss and PhD researcher Brian Lovell also discovered higher levels of C-reactive protein in the careers, a marker of inflammation that is linked to increased risk of developing coronary heart disease and diabetes.
Dr Wetherell said: "Parents of children with autism face tremendous physical, financial, emotional and social pressures and these can lead to prolonged activation of stress responses which might place them at greater risk of adverse health outcomes.
"The consequences of these effects are far-reaching and can influence the ability of the caregiver to provide consistent, effective and sustainable care for their child."
In a separate study, published in the April edition of Research in Developmental Disabilities the team discovered that careers with lower levels of social support experienced greater levels of stress, depression and anxiety and more common ailments.
The team is now to embark on a new research project looking at how writing about their emotions can have a positive impact on careers' well being. Those taking part in the research will be asked to provide saliva and blood samples and write for 20 minutes for three days on an assigned topic.

Link Between Violent Computer Games and Aggressiveness Questioned
ScienceDaily (Apr. 2, 2012) — There is a long-lasting and at times intense debate about the possible link between violent computer games and aggressiveness. A group of researchers from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, are now questioning the entire basis of the discussion. In a recently published article, they present a new study showing that, more than anything, a good ability to cooperate is a prerequisite for success in the violent gaming environment.
Researchers argue that gamers not only learn to cooperate but also to understand complex contexts, understand how skills can be improved, and think through cause and effect relationships.The opposing camp, on the other hand, is convinced that the games may foster violent and aggressive behaviour outside the gaming environment.
Complex gaming situations
The study, authored by Ulrika Bennerstedt, Jonas Ivarsson and Jonas Linderoth and titled "How gamers manage aggression: Situating skills in collaborative computer games," is presented in International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.
The Gothenburg-based research group spent hundreds of hours playing online games and observing other gamers, including on video recordings. They focused on complex games with portrayals of violence and aggressive action where the participants have to fight with and against each other. 'The situations gamers encounter in these games call for sophisticated and well-coordinated collaboration. We analysed what characteristics and knowledge the gamers need to have in order to be successful,' says Jonas Ivarsson, Docent (Reader) at the Department of Education, Communication and Learning.
Strategy and timing
It turns out that a successful gamer is strategic and technically knowledgeable, and has good timing. Inconsiderate gamers, as well as those who act aggressively or emotionally, generally do not do well. 'The suggested link between games and aggression is based on the notion of transfer, which means that knowledge gained in a certain situation can be used in an entirely different context. The whole idea of transfer has been central in education research for a very long time. The question of how a learning situation should be designed in order for learners to be able to use the learned material in real life is very difficult, and has no clear answers,' says Ivarsson.
'In a nutshell, we're questioning the whole gaming and violence debate, since it's not based on a real problem but rather on some hypothetical reasoning,' he says.